# A Review on QCA Multiplexer Designs

Keywords:
QCA, Mltiplexer, MUX, Quantum-dot Cellular Automata, Majority Gate, Simulation, Digital Circuit

### Abstract

Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA), is a contemporary nanotechnology for manufacturing logical circuits which brings less power consumption, smaller circuit size, and faster operation. In this technology, logical gates are composed of nano-scale basic components called cells. Each cell consists of four quantum-dot arranged in a square pattern. Diagonal arrangement of two extra electrons resembles two logical states 0 and 1. Majority gate and inverter gate are considered as the two most fundamental building blocks of QCA. The effect of cells on their neighbor cells enables designing more diverse circuits. Multiplexer is a key component in most computer circuits. Researchers have presented various QCA designs for multiplexers since the introduction of QCA. In this research all presented designs are simulated in QCA Designer Version 2.0.3 and investigated from different aspects such as number of cells, size, types of components used in circuit, number of layers, and number of cycles for producing output.### References

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[7] H. W. Chang, W.-Y. Liang, and C. W. Chiou, "Low Cost Dual-Basis Multiplier over GF (2 m) Using Multiplexer Approach," in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ed: Springer, 2012, pp. 185-192.

[8] S. Kamal, C. A. Azurdia-Meza, and K. Lee, "Family of Nyquist-I Pulses to Enhance Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System Performance," IETE Technical Review, vol. 33, pp. 187-198, 2016.

[9] M. P. Kumar, S. Murali, and K. Veezhinathan, "Network-on-chips on 3-D ICs: Past, present, and future," IETE Technical Review, vol. 29, pp. 318-335, 2012.

[10] S. Rawat, A. Sah, and S. Pundir, "Implementation of Boolean functions through multiplexers with the help of Shannon expansion theorem," International Journal of Computer Applications (0975–8887), 2013.

[11] K. Walus, T. J. Dysart, G. A. Jullien, and R. A. Budiman, "QCADesigner: A rapid design and simulation tool for quantum-dot cellular automata," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 26-31, 2004.

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[13] C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, and W. Porod, "Quantum cellular automata: the physics of computing with arrays of quantum dot molecules," in Proceedings of Workshop on Physics and Computation, 1994. PhysComp'94. , 1994, pp. 5-13.

[14] A. Safavi and M. Mosleh, "An Overview of Full Adders in QCA Technology," International Journal of Computer Science & Network Solutions, vol. 1, pp. 12-35, 2013.

[15] I. Amlani, A. O. Orlov, G. Toth, G. H. Bernstein, C. S. Lent, and G. L. Snider, "Digital logic gate using quantum-dot cellular automata," science, vol. 284, pp. 289-291, 1999.

[16] K. Hennessy and C. S. Lent, "Clocking of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 19, pp. 1752-1755, 2001.

[17] V. Mardiris, C. Mizas, L. Fragidis, and V. Chatzis, "Design and simulation of a QCA 2 to 1 multiplexer," in 12th WSEAS International Conference on COMPUTERS, Heraklion, Greece, 2008, pp. 572-576.

[18] T. Teodósio and L. Sousa, "QCA-LG: A tool for the automatic layout generation of QCA combinational circuits," in Norchip, 2007, 2007, pp. 1-5.

[19] K. Kim, K. Wu, and R. Karri, "The robust QCA adder designs using composable QCA building blocks," IEEE transactions on computer-aided design of integrated circuits and systems, vol. 1, pp. 176-183, 2007.

[20] S. Hashemi, M. R. Azghadi, and A. Zakerolhosseini, "A novel QCA multiplexer design," in International Symposium on Telecommunications, 2008. IST 2008. , 2008, pp. 692-696.

[21] B. Sen, M. Dutta, D. K. Singh, D. Saran, and B. K. Sikdar, "QCA multiplexer based design of reversible ALU," in IEEE International Conference on Circuits and Systems (ICCAS), 2012, 2012, pp. 168-173.

[2] C. G. Smith, "Computation without current," Science, vol. 284, p. 274, 1999.

[3] J. Iqbal, F. Khanday, and N. Shah, "Efficient Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) Implementation of Code Converters," Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering, vol. 3, p. 504, 2013.

[4] M. Kianpour and R. Sabbaghi-Nadooshan, "Novel Design of n-bit Controllable Inverter by Quantum-dot Cellular Automata," International Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 10, pp. 117-126, 2014.

[5] S. Rajkumar and N. K. Goyal, "Review of multistage interconnection networks reliability and fault-tolerance," IETE Technical Review, pp. 1-8, 2015.

[6] M. I. Salman, M. Q. Abdulhasan, C. K. Ng, N. K. Noordin, A. Sali, and B. Mohd Ali, "Radio resource management for green 3gpp long term evolution cellular networks: review and trade-offs," IETE Technical Review, vol. 30, pp. 257-269, 2013.

[7] H. W. Chang, W.-Y. Liang, and C. W. Chiou, "Low Cost Dual-Basis Multiplier over GF (2 m) Using Multiplexer Approach," in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ed: Springer, 2012, pp. 185-192.

[8] S. Kamal, C. A. Azurdia-Meza, and K. Lee, "Family of Nyquist-I Pulses to Enhance Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System Performance," IETE Technical Review, vol. 33, pp. 187-198, 2016.

[9] M. P. Kumar, S. Murali, and K. Veezhinathan, "Network-on-chips on 3-D ICs: Past, present, and future," IETE Technical Review, vol. 29, pp. 318-335, 2012.

[10] S. Rawat, A. Sah, and S. Pundir, "Implementation of Boolean functions through multiplexers with the help of Shannon expansion theorem," International Journal of Computer Applications (0975–8887), 2013.

[11] K. Walus, T. J. Dysart, G. A. Jullien, and R. A. Budiman, "QCADesigner: A rapid design and simulation tool for quantum-dot cellular automata," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 26-31, 2004.

[12] C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, W. Porod, and G. H. Bernstein, "Quantum cellular automata," Nanotechnology, vol. 4, p. 49, 1993.

[13] C. S. Lent, P. D. Tougaw, and W. Porod, "Quantum cellular automata: the physics of computing with arrays of quantum dot molecules," in Proceedings of Workshop on Physics and Computation, 1994. PhysComp'94. , 1994, pp. 5-13.

[14] A. Safavi and M. Mosleh, "An Overview of Full Adders in QCA Technology," International Journal of Computer Science & Network Solutions, vol. 1, pp. 12-35, 2013.

[15] I. Amlani, A. O. Orlov, G. Toth, G. H. Bernstein, C. S. Lent, and G. L. Snider, "Digital logic gate using quantum-dot cellular automata," science, vol. 284, pp. 289-291, 1999.

[16] K. Hennessy and C. S. Lent, "Clocking of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 19, pp. 1752-1755, 2001.

[17] V. Mardiris, C. Mizas, L. Fragidis, and V. Chatzis, "Design and simulation of a QCA 2 to 1 multiplexer," in 12th WSEAS International Conference on COMPUTERS, Heraklion, Greece, 2008, pp. 572-576.

[18] T. Teodósio and L. Sousa, "QCA-LG: A tool for the automatic layout generation of QCA combinational circuits," in Norchip, 2007, 2007, pp. 1-5.

[19] K. Kim, K. Wu, and R. Karri, "The robust QCA adder designs using composable QCA building blocks," IEEE transactions on computer-aided design of integrated circuits and systems, vol. 1, pp. 176-183, 2007.

[20] S. Hashemi, M. R. Azghadi, and A. Zakerolhosseini, "A novel QCA multiplexer design," in International Symposium on Telecommunications, 2008. IST 2008. , 2008, pp. 692-696.

[21] B. Sen, M. Dutta, D. K. Singh, D. Saran, and B. K. Sikdar, "QCA multiplexer based design of reversible ALU," in IEEE International Conference on Circuits and Systems (ICCAS), 2012, 2012, pp. 168-173.

Published

2017-06-01

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*Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering*,

*11*(2). Retrieved from http://mjee.org/index/index.php/ee/article/view/2197

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