Feasibility Study on Design and Development of a Hybrid Controller for Ultra-Precision Single-Point Diamond Turning

  • Shahrokh Hatefi Department of Mechatronics, Nelson Mandela University, South Africa
  • Khaled Abou-El-Hossein Department of Mechatronics, Nelson Mandela University, South Africa
Keywords: Hybrid Controller, Ultra-Precision Machining, Single-Point Diamond Turning

Abstract

The recent realm and leader technology in advanced manufacturing of critical components, and optical surfaces is ultra-precision Single-Point Diamond Turning (SPDT). This state-of-the-art technology enables machining optical surfaces with nanometric accuracies and surface roughness from order of nanometers. However, there are drawbacks in this process and SPDT is limited when machining brittle- and difficult-to-cut materials. Non-conventional assisted technologies have been developed and used to assist SPDT for extending turning limitations. Recently, application of novel hybrid platforms for SPDT has been emerging to achieve the best possible outcome in optical surface generation. Hybrid controllers are playing the main role in a hybrid platform. Main tasks of a hybrid controller in a hybrid SPDT platform include; real-time assisted technologies performance control, setting working parameters, and effective communication with implemented sensors for on-machine metrology. Hybrid processes in SPDT are recently emerging and there have been a few studies on designing and developing such novel platforms for SPDT. The purpose of this study is to design and simulate a Multi-Axis Automatic Hybrid Controller (MAAHC) to be used in a hybrid platform for assisting SPDT technologies. MAAHC has three process cores which work independently and communicate simultaneously. The designed MAAHC has different capabilities; MAAHC can control and drive ultrasonic vibration system, laser beam system, cold plasma system, and on-machine metrology systems i.e. vibration and force sensors. In addition, MAAHC is capable to control and drive two stepper motors in two independent linear axes. Electronic switches, communication ports, and high-performance switching have provided a full control on secondary technologies assisting in realizing a hybrid SPDT platform. Theoretical equations, design specifications, and simulation results have revealed that the proposed MAAHC is functional and has met all requirements to control such a hybrid SPDT process.

References

[1] Ito, Y. and T. Matsumura, “Theory and Practice in Machining Systems”, Springer, 2017.
[2] Balasubramaniam, R., R.V. Sarepaka, and S. Subbiah, “Diamond turn machining: Theory and practice”, CRC Press, 2017.
[3] Davim, J.P. and M.J. Jackson, “Nano and micromachining”, John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
[4] Gupta, K., “Advanced Manufacturing Technologies”, Springer, 2017.
[5] Shore, P. and P. Morantz, “Ultra-precision: Enabling our Future”, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 2012. 370(1973): p. 3993-4014, 2012.
[6] Brinksmeier, E., et al., “Submicron Functional Surfaces Generated by Diamond Machining”, CIRP annals, 2010. pp. 535-538, 2010.
[7] Owen, J., et al., “On the Ultra-Precision Diamond Machining of Chalcogenide Glass”, CIRP Annals, Vol. 64(1): p. 113-116, 2015.
[8] Sun, X. and K. Cheng, “Chapter 2 - Micro-/Nano-Machining through Mechanical Cutting A2 - Qin, Yi”, in Micromanufacturing Engineering and Technology (Second Edition). William Andrew Publishing: Boston. p. 35-59, 2015.
[9] Neo, D.W.K., “Ultraprecision Machining of Hybrid Freeform Surfaces using Multiple-Axis Diamond Turning”, Springer, 2017.
[10] Zhang, S., et al., “A Review of Surface Roughness Generation in Ultra-Precision Machining”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 91, pp. 76-95, 2015.
[11] Islak, S., D. Kir, and H. Celik, “Investigation of the Usability of Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools as an Alternative to Diamond Cutting Tools for The Aircraft Industry”, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 58(4): pp. 1119-1123, 2013.
[12] Gläbe, R. and O. Riemer. “Diamond Machining of Micro-Optical Components and Structures”, in Micro-Optics 2010. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010.
[13] Tang, Q., et al., “New Technology for Cutting Ferrous Metal with Diamond Tools”, Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 88: pp. 32-42, 2018.
[14] Stephenson, D.A. and J.S. Agapiou, “Metalcutting Theory and Practice”, CRC press, 2016.
[15] Wang, S., et al., “An Investigation On Surface Finishing in Ultra-Precision Raster Milling of Aluminum Alloy 6061”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 229(8): pp. 1289-1301, 2015.
[16] Thakur, A. and S. Gangopadhyay, “State-of-the-Art in Surface Integrity in Machining of Nickel-Based Super Alloys”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 100: pp. 25-54, 2016.
[17] Zou, L., G.J. Dong, and M. Zhou. “Tool Wear and Surface Roughness in Diamond Cutting of Die Steels”, in Key Engineering Materials. Trans Tech Publ, 2014.
[18] Sharma, V. and P.M. Pandey, “Optimization of Machining and Vibration Parameters for Residual Stresses Minimization in Ultrasonic Assisted Turning of 4340 Hardened Steel”, Ultrasonics, Vol. 70: p. 172-182, 2016.
[19] Xu, W., et al., “Diamond Wear Properties in Cold Plasma Jet”, Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 48: p. 96-103, 2014.
[20] Shahinian, H., et al., “Microlaser Assisted Diamond Turning of Precision Silicon Optics”, Optical Engineering, Vol. 58(9): pp. 092607, 2019.
[21] Yip, W. and S. To, “Tool Life Enhancement in Dry Diamond Turning of Titanium Alloys Using an Eddy Current Damping and A Magnetic Field for Sustainable Manufacturing”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 168: p. 929-939, 2017.
[22] Kuşhan, M.C., S. Orak, and Y. Uzunonat, “Ultrasonic Assisted Machining Methods: A”. 2017.
[23] Sajjady, S., et al., “Analytical and Experimental Study of Topography of Surface Texture in Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Turning”, Materials & Design, Vol. 93: p. 311-323, 2016.
[24] Luo, X. and Y. Qin, “Hybrid Machining: Theory, Methods, And Case Studies”, London [etc.]: Academic Press, 2018.
[25] Groover, M.P., “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials Processes, And Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[26] Qin, Y., “Micromanufacturing Engineering And Technology”, William Andrew, 2010.
[27] Jain, V.K., “Micromanufacturing Processes”, CRC press, 2012.
[28] Zeqin, L., et al., “Modeling and Prediction of Surface Topography with Three Tool-Work Vibration Components in Single-Point Diamond Turning”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 98(5-8), pp. 1627-1639, 2018.
[29] Razavi, H., M. Nategh, and A. Abdullah, “Analytical Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Ultrasonic-Vibration Assisted Oblique Turning, Part III: Experimental Investigation”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 63(1), pp. 26-36, 2012.
[30] Jiao, F., Y. Niu, and M.-J. Zhang, “Prediction of Machining Dimension in Laser Heating and Ultrasonic Vibration Composite Assisted Cutting of Tungsten Carbide”, Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 17(01), pp. 35-45, 2018.
[31] Sofuoğlu, M.A., et al., “Experimental Investigation of Machining Characteristics and Chatter Stability for Hastelloy-X with Ultrasonic and Hot Turning”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 95(1-4), pp. 83-97, 2018.
[32] Hatefi, S., et al., “Continuous Distraction Osteogenesis Device with MAAC Controller for Mandibular Reconstruction Applications”, BioMedical Engineering OnLine, Vol. 18(1), pp. 43, 2019.
[33] Hatefi, S., O. Ghahraei, and B. Bahraminejad, “Design and Development of a Novel Multi-Axis Automatic Controller for Improving Accuracy in CNC Applications”, Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 11(1), pp. 19, 2017.
[34] Hatefi, S., O. Ghahraei, and B. Bahraminejad, “Design and Development of a Novel CNC Controller for Improving Machining Speed”, Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 10(1), 2016.
[35] Hatefi, K., S. Hatefi, and M. Etemadi, “Distraction Osteogenesis in Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction Applications: Feasibility Study of Design and Development of an Automatic Continuous Distractor”, Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 12(3), pp. 69-75, 2018.
[36] McGuinness, J. “Advantages of Five Phase Motors in Microstepping Drive”, in IEE colloquium on stepper motors and their control. 1994. IET.
[37] Baluta, G. and M. Coteata. “Precision Microstepping System for Bipolar Stepper Motor control”, in 2007 International Aegean Conference on Electrical Machines and Power Electronics. 2007. IEEE.
[38] Anish, N., et al. “FPGA based Microstepping Scheme for Stepper Motor in Space-Based Solar Power Systems”, in 2012 IEEE 7th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS). 2012. IEEE.
[39] Zhang, X., J. He, and C. Sheng. “An Approach of Micro-Stepping Control for The Step Motors based on FPGA”, in 2005 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology. 2005. IEEE.
[40] Bendjedia, M., et al., “Position Control of A Sensorless Stepper Motor”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27(2), pp. 578-587, 2012.
Published
2019-06-01
How to Cite
Hatefi, S., & Abou-El-Hossein, K. (2019). Feasibility Study on Design and Development of a Hybrid Controller for Ultra-Precision Single-Point Diamond Turning. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 13(2), 121-128. Retrieved from http://mjee.org/index/index.php/ee/article/view/3280
Section
Articles